29
Jan

BIT BY BIT, BLOCKCHAIN IS COMING What's cryptocurrency? Understanding blockchain technology starts with understanding cryptocurrency. And to explain cryptocurrency we will use its star pupil: bitcoin. Bitcoin is a digital currency, created and stored electronically, existing entirely in computer code. Bitcoin was first revealed in a white paper written by one Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, which foreshadowed its primary, ground-breaking use: a platform on which individuals can make secure payments to each other without the need for an intermediary (like a bank). The identity of Satoshi is still unknown. Each bitcoin is created by being "mined" by computers, much like how gold is mined. Bitcoin shares some other attractive features with gold: ·         it's decentralised, which means it's not controlled by any one entity (unlike fiat currencies which are generally controlled by national governments) ·         it's scarce, there will never be more than 21 million bitcoins in the world (unlike fiat currencies which can be printed at the will of a government). What's a blockchain? What’s more fascinating (to some) and revolutionary than cryptocurrency is the technology sitting behind it: the blockchain. The simplest way to think about blockchain is as a digital ledger containing every transaction ...

19
Dez

SOME RECENT AVIATION JURISPRUDENCE   ECJ - JUDGEMENT - 6 July 2017 - Case C-290/16 - Air Berlin - Germany - ECLI:EU:C:2017:523 -    Flight cancellation fee; unfair terms in consumer agreements Regulation (EC) no. 1008/2008. This case concerns among others a German scheme that prescribes that airlines may charge no administrative costs to customers who do not show up for their flight or have cancelled it. Court of Justice: The cancellation fees charged by airlines can be assessed concerning their lack of fairness. Moreover, the various elements of the final price to be paid to the airlines must be listed separately. Thus, by Article 23, paragraph 1, third sentence of Regulation (EC) no. 1008/2008 it must be understood that airlines, when announcing their passenger rates, must separately specify the amounts payable by the customer, according to article 23, paragraph 1, third sentence, under b), c) and d), for the taxes, airport charges and other charges, surcharges and fees, and therefore these may not, not even partially, be incorporated into the passenger rates referred to in Article 23, paragraph 1, third sentence, under a), of that regulation. Thus, Article 22, paragraph 1, of Regulation no. 1008/2008 must be understood as not precluding, ...

07
Nov

Some Issues regarding Drones (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems)   Drones are today tools, which are becoming more and more common. The threat faced by military drones to civil aircraft is ominous. One will also consider that those responsible for operating RPAS such as the remotely-piloted Predator MQ-1 or Reaper MQ-9 aircraft do not usually seek or receive the permission as prescribed by Article 3(c) of the ICAO manual. One will be aware that an RPAS like this carries sophisticated weapons, and is programmed to launch lethally accurate strikes against terrorists in conflict areas of the world. One should also consider that an RPAS, such as for instance the Reaper, does not have a pilot in the cockpit, but more than 180 people are require to keep the drone flying. A pilot is however always at the controls, and another officer operates its sensors and camera. The ICAO RPAS Manual recognizes a State in which hazards and risks to safety are reduced and alludes to safety management systems as systematic approaches to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures infrastructure, formalities and procedures. It is clear that there are many safety aspects in aviation. The Manual on Remotely Piloted Piloted Aircraft Systems of ICAO refers ...

26
Sep

MONEY LAUNDERING: A GLOBAL VIEW Since two decades money laundering issues and law became inherent of our daily life. Changes in the law on money laundering have taken place and are in train, in Europe, in China and other parts of the world. Striking headlines like ‘Spanish Princess Cristina de Bourbon charges with money laundering and fraud in major corruption investigation’, ‘Messi caught up in money laundering mess’, ‘HSBC sets aside $700m for money-laundering fines’, ‘Vatican Priest charges with money laundering’, Prosecution Office continues to catch lax gatekeepers’, or ‘Lawyer and book keeper convicted of laundering £1.8’, can be found regularly in newspapers and on websites these days. They reflect the results of the ongoing fight against money laundering worldwide. New rules are intended to prevent money laundering and terrorism financing. The regulators want more timely cross border transaction data on individuals to track risks arising from increasing cross border transfer. In Europe, China and other parts of the world, more or less the same principals are valid. Definition of money laundering Money laundering is a generic term used to describe the process of concealing illegally obtained proceeds. It is criminalized all around the world and is considered a grave danger ...

04
Apr

Analysis of Passenger Data ACT OF 25 DECEMBER 2016 on the processing of passenger name records (Belgian Official Journal 25 January 2017) (PNR Act) The Belgian ‘PNR Act’ (Passenger Name Record) requires carriers and tour operators in the various transport sectors (air, rail, road and maritime transport) to forward the data on their passengers to a central database - ‘the passenger name record database’ - so it can be analysed in the context of terrorism, violent radicalisation and other forms of serious crime such as fraud, people smuggling and the illegal trade in drugs and arms. The intent is to compare the collected data with pre-determined criteria to identify new trends and phenomena, and to determine which passengers could endanger our public order. PIU There are still many hurdles to clear before Belgium can effectively start with the analyses. First, a ‘Passenger Information Unit’ or PIU must be established within FPS Home Affairs. This unit will collect, store and process the data that is transmitted by the carriers and tour operators. In other words, it is here that the data is analysed and stored in the ‘Passenger Name Record Database’. Crucial to this is the cooperation with the PIUs of other ...